• Apussanee Boonyavarakul Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Phramongkutklao Hospital



GEN-DM, GEN-DM MF, Glycemic index, DSNFs, Diabetes


Background: People with type 2 diabetes incorporate diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs) in their nutrition therapy to enhance glycemic control and manage body weight. Among these formulas, the GEN-DM modified formula (GEN-DM MF) has been widely used for several years. However, the glycemic index (GI) of GEN-DM MF has not yet been determined.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the GI of GEN-DM MF.

Methods: Ten healthy adults with normal oral glucose tolerance were included. The plasma glucose was measured at 0 (baseline), 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consuming 50 grams of glucose solution. On the subsequent two days, plasma glucose measurement was repeated using 84.46 g of GEN-DM MF containing 50 g of carbohydrates. The GI was calculated by dividing the incremental area under the glucose response curve (iAUC) of GEN-DM MF by the area under the glucose response curve of the glucose solution, then multiplying the result by 100. The glycemic load (GL) was calculated by multiplying the GI by the carbohydrate amount in one serving of GEN-DM MF (40 g) /100.

Results: Six healthy men and four women with an average age of 35.80 ± 6.89 years, ranging from 28 to 44, were included in the study. The plasma glucose levels at 30 and 60 minutes following the GEN-DM MF were significantly lower than the corresponding glucose levels with p= 0.002 and 0.013, respectively. The GI and GL of GEN-DM MF were 37.75 and 9, respectively, which was classified as low GI and low GL.

Conclusion: GEN-DM MF is classified as a low GI and low GL food, which could significantly lower plasma glucose levels among healthy individuals.


Metrics Loading ...


International Diabetes Federation [Internet]. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 10th ed. Brussels, Belgium: 2021. [cited 2023 5 December]. Available from:

Asif M. The prevention and control the type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern. J Educ Health Promot 2014; 3: 1. DOI:

Villegas R, Liu S, Gao YT, Yang G, Li H, Zheng W, et al. Prospective study of dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Chinese women. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167: 2310-6. DOI:

Riccardi G, Rivellese AA, Giacco R. Role of glycemic index and glycemic load in the healthy state, in prediabetes, and in diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87: 269S-74S. DOI:

Noronha JC, Mechanick JI. Is there a role for Diabetes-Specific Nutrition Formulas as meal replacements in Type 2 diabetes? Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022; 13. DOI:

Alish CJ, Garvey WT, Maki KC, Sacks GS, Hustead DS, Hegazi RA, et al. A diabetesspecific enteral formula improves glycemic variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther 2010; 12:419-25. DOI:

Mechanick JI, Marchetti A, Hegazi R, Hamdy O. Diabetes-Specific Nutrition Formulas in the management of patients with diabetes and cardiometabolic risk. Nutrients 2020; 12: 1-16. DOI:

Carbohydrates in human nutrition. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. FAO Food Nutr Pap 1998; 66:1-140.

Jenkins DJA, Dehghan M, Mente A, Bangdiwala SI, Rangarajan S, Srichaikul K, et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cardiovascular disease and mortality. N Engl J Med 2021; 384: 1312-22. DOI:

Samaisong N. Effects of diabetic diets supplemented with medical food fructose formula on nutritional status in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Thesis]. Nakhon Phatom: Mahidol University; 2009.

Saraiva A, Carrascosa C, Raheem D, Ramos F, Raposo A. Maltitol: Analytical determination methods, applications in the food industry, metabolism and health impacts. Int J Environ Res Pub Health 2020; 17: 1-28. DOI:

Costa GT, Guimarães SB, Sampaio HA de C. Fructo-oligosaccharide effects on blood glucose: an overview. Acta Cir Bras 2012; 27: 279-82. DOI:

Shah P, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, Ezatagha A, Campbell J, Zurbau A, et al. Acute glycemic and insulin response of Fossence TM alone, or when substituted or added to a carbohydrate challenge: A three-phase, acute, randomized, cross-over, double-blind clinical trial. Heliyon 2021; 7: e06805. DOI:

Respondek F, Hilpipre C, Chauveau P, Cazaubiel M, Gendre D, Maudet C, et al. Digestive tolerance and postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after consumption of dairy desserts containing maltitol and fructo-oligosaccharides in adults. Eur J Clin Nutri 2014; 68: 575-80. DOI:

Chen V, Zurbau A, Ahmed A, Khan T, Au-Yeung F, Kendall C, et al. Effect of oats and oat-fiber on glycemic control in diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Curr Dev Nutr 2021; 5(Suppl 2): 489. DOI:

Cozma AI, Sievenpiper JL, De Souza RJ, Chiavaroli L, Ha V, Wang DD, et al. Effect of fructose on glycemic control in diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. Diabetes Care 2012; 35: 1611-20. DOI:

Guideline: Sugars intake for adults and children [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015. Executive summary. [cited 2023 5 December]. Available from:

Aoun R, Chokor FAZ, Taktouk M, Nasrallah M, Ismaeel H, Tamim H, et al. Dietary fructose and its association with the metabolic syndrome in Lebanese healthy adults: a cross-sectional study. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2022; 14: 29. DOI:

Tiyapanjanit T, Boonyavarakul A. Comparative study between the Phramongkutklao's diabetic blenderized diets and commercial diabetic diets on glycemic variability in continuous tube-fed patients with type 2 diabetes. J Med Assoc Thai 2014; 97: 1151-6.

Elsayed NA, Aleppo G, Aroda VR, Bannuru RR, Brown FM, Bruemmer D, et al. 5. Facilitating positive health behaviors and well-being to improve health outcomes: standards of care in diabetes-2023. Diabetes Care 2023; 46 (Suppl 1): S68-96. DOI:

Yari Z, Behrouz V, Zand H, Pourvali K. New insight into diabetes management: from glycemic index to dietary insulin index. Curr Diabetes Rev 2020; 16: 293-300. DOI:





How to Cite

Boonyavarakul A. STUDY OF GLYCEMIC INDEX OF DIABETES-SPECIFIC MODIFIED FORMULA AMONG HEALTHY ADULTS. J Southeast Asian Med Res [Internet]. 2024 Mar. 1 [cited 2024 Apr. 17];8:e0188. Available from:



Original Articles

Similar Articles

<< < 1 2 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.